The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has issued a scientific opinion on “the occurrence and control of three parasites that may be transmitted via food, namely Cryptosporidium spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Echinococcus spp.,” which cause the diseases “cryptosporidiosis, toxoplasmosis, and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE), respectively.” EFSA identified “many gaps in our knowledge of food‐borne transmission of the three parasites” but suggested that “consumer preferences for raw, fresh produce may contribute to increasing the likelihood of infection.” EFSA further noted that commercial washing of fresh produce, “particularly with the reuse of washwater, may spread localised contamination throughout a batch,” resulting in contamination of ready-to-eat produce.

EFSA also researched the prevalence of contamination in meat, finding that “consumer preferences for animals raised with access to outdoor conditions, for not freezing meat prior to consumption, and for eating meat raw or rare may increase the likelihood of exposure to infective T. gondii tissue cysts.”

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